The mango is a fleshy stone fruit belonging to the genus Mangifera, consisting of numerous tropical fruiting trees, that are cultivated mostly for edible fruits. The majority of these species are found in nature as wild mangoes. They all belong in the flowering plant family Anacardiaceae.
Kokan is famous for mangoes.
Mangoes are widely used in cuisine. Sour, unripe mangoes are used in chutneys, athanu, pickles,side dishes, or may be eaten raw with salt, chili, or soy sauce. A summer drink called Aam panna comes from mangoes. Mango pulp made into jelly or cooked with red gram dhal and green chillies may be served with cooked rice. Mango lassi is popular throughout South Asia, prepared by mixing ripe mangoes or mango pulp with buttermilk and sugar. Ripe mangoes are also used to make curries. Aamras is a popular thick juice made of mangoes with sugar or milk, and is consumed with bread, rice or pooris. The pulp from ripe mangoes is also used to make jam calledmangada. Andhra Aavakaaya is a pickle made from raw, unripe, pulpy and sour mango, mixed with chilli powder, fenugreek seeds, mustard powder, salt and groundnut oil. Mango is also used inAndhra to make Dal preparations. Gujaratis use mango to make chunda (a grated mango delicacy).
Although not confirmed scientifically, mango peel pigments may have biological effects,including carotenoids, such as the provitamin A compound, beta-carotene, lutein and alpha-carotene,polyphenols such as quercetin, kaempferol, gallic acid, caffeic acid, catechins, tannins, and the unique mango xanthonoid, mangiferin,which are under preliminary research for their potential to counteract various disease processes. Phytochemical and nutrient content appears to vary across mango cultivars. Up to 25 different carotenoids have been isolated from mango pulp, the densest of which was beta-carotene, which accounts for the yellow-orange pigmentation of most mango cultivars. Peel and leaves also have significant polyphenol content, including xanthonoids, mangiferin and gallic acid.
The mango triterpene, lupeol, is an effective inhibitor in laboratory models of prostate and skin cancers. An extract of mango branch bark called Vimang, isolated by Cuban scientists, contains numerous polyphenols with antioxidant properties in vitro and on blood parameters of elderly humans.
The pigment euxanthin, known as Indian yellow, is often thought to be produced from the urine of cattle fed mango leaves; the practice is described as having been outlawed in 1908 due to malnutrition of the cows and possible urushiol poisoning. This supposed origin of euxanthin appears to rely on a single, anecdotal source, and Indian legal records do not outlaw such a practice.